Economic impact of hydro energy
Generally hydro energy is accepted as a long-time and developed to the bounds. However at the moment small hydro power plants becomes more and more common. About 11GW of capacity is installed within the EU-27 as small power plants. Small installations (below 15 m of slope) are the foremost possible type of hydropower development within the nearest future within the EU. The investment cost of the little scale project is: 975-1600 €/kW for little units, 1275-5025 €/kW for medium units and 1550-6050 €/kW just in case of enormous units. Average operation and maintenance costs is about 40 €/ (kW*year) for the whole small scale projects. Large scale hydro power plants (above 15m) are relatively well developed, thus investment cost are also relatively low. Small units cost is between 1450 €/kW and 5750 €/kW, from 1125 €/kW to 4875 €/kW for medium units and from 850 to 3650 €/kW for large units. The average operating and maintenance cost is about 35 €/ (kW*year). However plenty of existing units are relatively elderly and required only renovation to boost their parameters. The upgrading cost of small scale projects is between 900 and 3700 €/kW and just in case of huge project from 800 to 3600 €/kW. The annual operation time is variable during a wide selection from 2200 to 6200 hours annual. It depends from the sort of powerhouse and from function in electrical network. Estimated life time all of described units is about 50 years. The economic aspect is the main barrier on the hydropower develop. The hydro energy is incorrectly accepted as a mature technology, what provide to the containment further researches. Potent policy of the EU within the RES promotion provides 6 instruments of support for the renewable technologies: feed-in tariff system, feed-in premium system, renewable or quota obligation, tax incentives or exemptions, fiscal incentives, investment grants.
WHO REGULATES HYDRO-POWER IN INDIA
• Traditionally, distribution companies were owned by the respective states engaging in both the generation and distribution of electricity. • After the introduction of Electricity Act, distribution companies continued being held by the state while gradually allowing private companies to engage in the distribution of electricity. • In May 2020, the Government of India announced the privatisation of the distribution companies in the union territories (administrative division governed by the Government of India) to improve the operational and financial efficiency of the companies. • The CEA is the statutory body under the Electricity Act that advises Government of India on establishing policies, safety requirements and technical standards. • The regulatory commissions are set up at the central and state level to regulate and oversee generation, distribution and transmission of electricity.